The Salonika campaign also relied heavily on lengthy supply lines by sea from Britain and France. Sinking of the Lusitania When the Germans sank the Lusitania in 1915, a passenger ocean liner with 159 Americans on board, the public opinion in the United States toward the war began to change. A bombardment that was aimed well could destroy enemy trenches, and knock out artillery batteries (groups of guns) and communication lines. While the Western Front was relatively close to the major manufacturing centres of Europe, and was supported by extensive road and rail networks, the situation was very different on other fronts. Effects include: blistering skin, vomiting, sore eyes, internal and external bleeding. They consisted of three different sections, the front line, the support trenches and the reserve trenches. WW1 Weapons and Supplies During World War 1 a variety of weapons and supplies were used. Just as the demand for transport increased, many able-bodied men volunteered for military service. Every bullet, blanket, bandage, artillery battery or tin of bully beef had to be manufactured and transported where and when it was required. Only then could artillery and infantry be moved forward with adequate supplies. While WWI was fought in the trenches and used machine guns and poisonous gas, WWII was fought using modern artillery and machines utilizing more airplanes, ships, tanks, and submarines. The Turkish forces also relied heavily on shipping across the Sea of Marmara to supply their forces. It was expected that the Russian Army would be slow to mobilise, so the strategy was to sweep rapidly through Belgium and Luxembourg, invade northern France and encircle around the north and west of Paris. It was able to expand its pre-war bus production lines and they alone produced over 10,000 lorries during the war. German reservists are serenaded by a military band as their train departs from Berlin in a scene that was repeated all over Europe from August 1914. A decision was then made to push up-river towards Baghdad, but this ill-fated expedition was supported by thinly stretched supply lines using river steamers and was cut off, surrounded and ultimately defeated at Kut-al-Amara. The presence of horses often increased morale among the soldiers at the front, but the animals contributed to disease and poor … World War I was a global conflict that took place between 1914 and 1918. £500.00. The initials ROD stand for the Railway Operating Division of the Royal Engineers who were responsible for the operation of military trains. War material had to be railed to a Channel port and, until special ferries were built to carry wagons, loaded onto a ferry, reloaded onto a French train or barges and carried forward to the main supply dumps behind the British lines. This relentless challenge to maintain the flow of supplies forward from the supply dumps had to be undertaken largely at night to minimise the risk from harassing fire. Discuss why items such as puttees, gas mask, trench tool, field dressings and helmet were included and what we can learn from them about life in the trenches. This theme - of the momentum of an initially successful advance faltering as supply lines were outrun, while defending forces were rapidly concentrated to fill the breech - was to be replayed many times during the next four years. It is colourless and takes 12 hours to take effect. By late 1916 construction of lines was under way, and between January and September 1917 the average tonnage conveyed weekly on light railways operated by British and Dominion forces expanded from barely 10,000 tonnes to more than 200,000 tonnes. They were wrong. The network was to grow to some 2,000 miles of track. This act killed 1,198 innocent passengers. Supplies from Britain were routed through the port of Cherbourg and trains then ran across France and Italy to Taranto where ships carried them across the Aegean to the small port of Itea. Invented in France in 1860, barbed wire was further developed in the United States, where it was used to restrict cattle and secure territory. It also shows the harsh winter conditions and difficult terrain. Click the button below to download this worksheet for use in the classroom or at home. Horses were used for reconnaissance and for carrying messengers as well as for pulling artillery, ambulances, and supply wagons. The three line trench system was how the trenches were dug. In WW1 trench warfare was used greatly, the soldiers would dig trenches into the ground so that they were able to avoid enemy fire. Trench warfare has become synonymous with World War I, when it was heavily used on the Western Front from 1914 to 1918. Flag images indicative of country of origin and not necessarily the primary operator. Various items of uniform and equipment are labelled along with occasional notes about their use. How the U.S. contributed to WW1. Although many other manufacturers increased their output, the large number of different lorry designs remained a major problem, especially complicating maintenance and repairs. Even a month after the occupation of Belgium, barely 15 per cent of the railway network was operating despite 26,000 workers being drafted in. The end of the Salonika campaign came suddenly, after several years of stalemate. The dazzle camouflage painted paddle steamer at the quay in the distance is filled with troops going on leave, contrasting with the ambulances waiting in the foreground. KS2 Similarly, by February 1918, 100 women were employed to work the docks. While road, rail and river transport were used where feasible, due to the harsh and remote terrain supply lines relied heavily on African porters. Over 1,000 civilian lorries and over 300 buses were requisitioned at the outbreak of hostilities and were hurriedly moved across the Channel. The offensive was assisted greatly by a guerrilla campaign waged mainly by Arab irregular forces against the Turkish Hedjaz railway. These unusual vehicles played an important role in the D-Day landings, the Battle of Normandy and the campaign in north-west Europe. A key component in any military capability is logistics; support to the personnel engaged, the equipment used and the replenishment of stores. Download A WW1 Soldier’s Equipment. The following is a list of equipment of the United States during World War II which includes artillery, vehicles and vessels. Standard AIF canvas kit bag, WW1 issue, in dark khaki with soldiers details stencilled on the outside in white paint. Only American industry could supply material in large quantities at such short notice to augment the limited British manufacturing capacity. At the turn of the twentieth century railways dominated land transport. Entire new railways were built including a light railway nearly 60 miles long to support troops in the lower reaches of the Struma River valley. The British took increasing responsibility for operating the standard gauge railways supporting their forces. Discover their stories now. Thousands of Ottoman soldiers were deployed to defend the railway from the increasingly effective sabotage. Subject: Stores And Equipment: Standard List Of Medical Supplies The Minimum Standard List of Drugs, Chemicals and Surgical Supplies which was issued with Operations Regulation No. But humans have also used it for at least 1,000 years to help heal their injuries. The supply lines even included extensive use of aerial ropeways to reach troops at high altitudes, especially during the freezing winters. While the Bulgarians were forced to abandon this part of the front, a daring mounted force pushed northwards to Skopje and also cut the supply routes to the western part of the front, precipitating the end of the war in this theatre. A huge effort was made to support a renewed campaign, with heavy reinforcements from India, by improving the port of Basra, building roads and railways and introducing more and better river steamers. On the home front the possible impacts of a European war had been foreseen long before 1914, and plans to put the British railways on a war footing had been prepared. Flamethrowers used in WW1 were invented by the Germans. The British, however, planned for a more mobile war and had decided to rely primarily on motor transport. Camels were used extensively in the campaigns in Sinai and Palestine. The railways rapidly faced several major challenges. During the war locomotives travelled far from their usual haunts, like this Great Central Railway locomotive at Birmingham in September 1918. An ideal German World War I infantry division was composed of about 18,000 men and around 4500 horses or mules. £560.00. It was a thin and watery broth containing sliced turnips and carrots, Maconochie was endured by famished soldiers, and detested by all. The next problem was how to bridge the gap between the supply dumps and the soldiers who needed the supplies - and the problems got more and more difficult the closer supplies were moved towards the front lines. At the end of offensive and counter-offensive the lines generally stabilised close to where they had begun. £14.20 postage. Belgian Army engineers destroying a road and railway bridge in Termonde to hold up the German advance before retreating to Antwerp on 18 September 1914. videos. More than 65 million men from 30 countries battled in the WW1. At the same time British industry, including major railway workshops, had been reorganised to massively increase the production of armaments. The main reason why WW1 started was Archduke Franz Ferdinand’s assassination on June 28, 1914. Poison gas was used by both sides with devastating results (well, sometimes) during the Great War. Within a month this number had risen to over 400. Control of the Tigris River was crucial for ensuring that shallow-draughted river boats could supply the mainly Indian forces pushing northwards from Basra on the Persian Gulf. The British artillery was to fire nearly 28 million shells during the Somme battles, but increasingly the 20,000 tonnes of supplies required daily to support an offensive on a front of about 12 miles could not be distributed adequately. These include helmets, leather jerkins, goatskin garments and webbing. Also known as the Great War or First World War, it was fought mainly in Europe, but it also spread to the Middle East, Africa, and Asia. Q 9340. It was only in 1918 that these supply problems were sufficiently overcome to allow offensives to be sustained. Following a French surrender, expected within six weeks, the forces could then face the Russians. Dazzled Leave Ships, Boulogne, 1917, by Charles Bryant. 0 bids. Each nation had developed very sophisticated schedules for concentrating troops and equipment at key depots and then despatching the forces rapidly to designated positions on their frontiers. African porters were used in huge numbers during the East African campaign. The adequacy of transport and supply networks played a major role in shaping strategies for operations throughout the First World War and in influencing their success or failure. Defending the docks. British forces therefore occupied the oilfields near Basra in late 1914. Although the railways were heavily focussed on traffic to and from the Channel ports, they also had to respond to many other demands. When an offensive was being planned, even larger quantities of material had to be concentrated in preparation for the operations that might last for months. Over 16 million animals served in the First World War. The final link to the front line troops was normally carried out by ration parties under the cover of darkness. The owners had been encouraged by a financial subsidy to purchase vehicles that met a War Department specification, a condition of which was that the vehicles could be requisitioned. or Best Offer. The inadequacy of motor transport was cruelly exposed during the Somme campaign from July 1916 onwards. Q 5855. Food rationing in … Meanwhile, further to the east, a campaign was fought along the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. The French and Germans had a ready solution for the first part of this journey because they had recognised before the war that there would be an important role for 60cm gauge light railway systems. The main food was now a pea-soup with a few lumps of horsemeat. In the meantime, a heavy reliance had to be placed on far less efficient horse-drawn transport. Horse-drawn transport was very widely used close to the front, especially over rough ground. In WW1 what equipment did they use? Belatedly the British also decided to embark upon the rapid development of light railway systems. Dan Snow is speed dressed with a 1914 British Infantryman’s kit as used at the Western Front. For the British the challenge was complicated by the English Channel. There are a total of [ 14 ] WW1 Australian Infantry Weapons (1914-1918) entries in the Military Factory. They also developed the capacity to support the concentration of forces and supplies sufficient to unleash a blow that could shatter the opposing lines. Consequently, smaller dumps were established at road-heads from which horse and mule transport collected material. The front traversed mountainous terrain, posing huge logistical problems for both sides in supplying their troops. The German advance ground to a halt. From machine guns to different types of gases, each was used for a specific reason and required great technique to use. Road transport also experienced huge impacts from the war, starting with the sudden disappearance of requisitioned buses, lorries and horses. The overturned engine, ROD 1859, is one of 311 freight locomotives of a standard design that were shipped to France and Belgium from 1917. This became much more pressing from 1916, when large amounts of equipment were transported across the Channel in response to appeals from the French authorities to meet chronic shortages. All Various items of uniform and equipment are labelled along with occasional notes about their use. Maintaining these huge forces in the field - up to 2 million men were serving on the Western Front - required vast amounts of supplies. Ultimately the momentum of the advances from August onwards that precipitated the end of the war was able to be supported adequately. Veterinarians use primarily medical equipment (stethoscope, needles and syringes, anesthetic machines, etc.). Oil was vital to Britain for fuelling its most powerful warships, as well as for motor transport. Read about our approach to external linking. By 1918 the labour force included more than 16,000 Greek men, 3,700 Greek women and 4,500 Turkish POWs. The rapidly advancing German troops far outran their supply lines once they entered France. A fleet of lorries provided the next link across the rugged mountains of central Greece to Bralo, where the final stage was completed by standard gauge rail to Salonika. For both sides submarine warfare and mines posed a serious threat to supply lines. Newly employed Chinese Labourers were used at Newhaven Harbour after 1917. It seems the main cause of early food shortage was that farmers, suppliers and shop keepers were holding back stock; maybe they believed that they would need their produce past Christmas 1914 or they were just takin… Fighting a campaign north of Salonika, initially to support Serbia, presented many challenges that were different to the Western Front. By early 1917 these increasingly complex transportation networks - supported by a specially created Labour Corps which included tens of thousands of men recruited from China, Egypt, India and other Empire countries - were capable of supporting defensive lines almost indefinitely. This October 1917 scene shows wounded being conveyed over the Judaean Hills to the Casualty Clearing Station in covered-in stretchers (cacolets) on the backs of camels. At the start of the war, there was a fear of food shortages but the real shortages didn’t hit home until 1915, these initial prices and shortages were a knee jerk reaction to the announcement that Britain was at war. Previously, Britain and its allies used to buy supplies from the U.S. amounting to over 75 billion dollar per week. In this case, shell-carrying pack mules are moving forward through the mud near Ypres on 1 August 1917 to support the Battle of Pilckem Ridge. Two 'Insect' class Royal Navy gunboats at Baghdad. Death can take up to 5 weeks. Ending 21 Dec at … What was family life like during World War One? Lorries unloading a supply train at railhead to deliver to a forward refilling point. The engine at the head of the train is one of 100 2-6-2T American ALCO steam engines built in 1917, while beyond it is a recently delivered British 40hp Simplex petrol engined tractor. A huge construction and maintenance programme to improve communications was undertaken, including large numbers of civilian labourers and prisoners of war. However, the terrain near the front was often impassable for wheeled vehicles and so pack animals were used extensively. There, the foothold on Turkish territory was so small that horse transport and men undertook most of the transportation forward. A surprise French and Serbian attack broke through the Bulgarian lines high in the mountains and pushed on to the Vardar River valley, severing the main railway line supplying the central and eastern half of the Bulgarian front. By Christmas 1914, defensive lines of trenches stretched from the Channel coast to the Swiss border. Light railways could bridge part of the gap but also became vulnerable to enemy artillery and small arms fire as they got closer to the front. Consequently the main belligerent nations of Europe built their plans for mobilising and supporting their armies in war primarily around railways. The next war was to show the true military potential of motor transport, while the day of the horse was to pass for ever. Anywhere beyond this point was potentially within range of the devastating effects of long distance artillery shelling. Here five women are cleaning a locomotive. A single road, to Seres, supplied virtually half the British front, and collapsed rapidly under the traffic. As the troops advanced, supplies and reinforcements had to be brought forward across the shattered landscape of the battlefield where roads and railways had been obliterated. Two technologies that were crucial in shaping the First World War were railways and artillery. Coal suddenly had to be railed over 700 miles up to the northern tip of Scotland, largely along a single track route that had never been designed for heavy freight traffic. World War One Could be used to show children the different parts of a soldier’s kit in WW1. But for the few that returned home there was a joyous welcome and reunion. Some light railways continued in operation for years after the guns fell silent, while much of the equipment was sold off and continued in operation, sometimes for decades, in many parts of the world. Entries are listed below in alphanumeric order (1-to-Z). At the end of the war some of the surviving horses were sold as meat to Belgian butchers, being regarded as unfit for any other purpose. To support a 250-mile-long front, largely through remote mountainous terrain or along mosquito-infested river valleys, there were only a couple of existing railways and virtually no metalled roads. It could also help break up … In ancient times, Gaelic-Irish sources wrote that warriors in the battle of Clontarf used moss to pack their wounds. WW1: Maintaining supplies. It would be the last time the horse would be used on a mass scale in modern warfare. The U.S. actually saved Britain and some other Allied powers from bankruptcy by joining the war. The Germans torpedoed the passenger liner Lusitania on May 1st 1915 which sank with a loss of 1,195 lives. The Entente and the Central Powers agreed upon one expectation at the outset: that there would be a rapid, offensive war which would be over quickly. But even this revealed a further problem. WW1 German Army Helmet M17 CAMMO used in Russian Finnish War@@CHRISTMAS SALE!! Meanwhile British forces were rushed across the Channel and deployed with the French and Belgian forces. With the end of hostilities the networks and equipment took on new roles, initially in supporting reconstruction of the devastated areas. One widely-used but widely-disliked ration was the canned soup, Maconochie. In the event, strong Belgian resistance, including extensive demolition of railway infrastructure, delayed the advance and the use of the network to supply German forces. Baghdad fell on 11 March 1917. Railways were the only way of shifting this volume of material overland and a very sophisticated transportation and supply system was developed, especially after a major reorganisation in 1916. When the conditions became impossible for wheeled transport, pack mules were used extensively on the Western Front and other theatres such as the Salonika campaign. Often the final leg had to be carried out by the soldiers themselves carrying the food, water and other supplies to the front lines. The fodder for the horses alone took up more transportation capacity than food and ammunition for the men. So crucial was transportation that in the last months of the war, despite a shortage of front line soldiers, men with railway experience were being transferred from infantry units to railway operating companies. During the First World War, the Allies and the Central Powers employed modern weaponry and firepower on an unprecedented scale. There was also a much greater demand on the available locomotives, rolling stock and infrastructure. It is estimated that over 1 million Africans were recruited or conscripted as carriers by the belligerents and they, together with the civilian population, suffered most of the casualties. One of the best-prepared companies was AEC, a subsidiary of the companies operating much of London's bus, tram and underground services. > A WW1 Soldier’s Equipment. They were used for transport, communication and companionship. This party of the 4th Battalion The Black Watch carry rations forward during the Battle of Neuve Chapelle in March 1915. Horses, donkeys, mules and camels carried food, water, ammunition and medical supplies to men at the front, and dogs and pigeons carried messages. Artillery (heavy guns) played a big part in the battlefields of World War I. This line had been built shortly before the war from Damascus over 800 miles southwards to Medina, largely to strengthen Ottoman control of the region. In the following months the main supply links to France through the channel ports were reinforced with judicious enhancements to the network. Following the Japanese attack on 7 December 1941, which led to the United States actively supporting the Allied war effort. World War II was a global war that was under way by 1939 and ended in 1945. patriotic WW1 posters patriotic WW1 photographs patriotic WW1 greetings cards WW1 saving certificates rationing in WW1 household economy in WW1 child farm labour in WW1 air raids in WW1 the Volunteer Force WW1 munitions factories observation balloons. Kitchen staff became more and more dependent on local vegetables and als… Well, at the simplest, it's the weight of the food for man and beast and the ammunition used in a single day. They were soon up to 80 miles ahead of their nearest railhead, and horse-drawn transport could not adequately bridge the gap. They quickly established networks that led from the main supply dumps to the artillery batteries and then further forward to smaller supply dumps and refilling points from which the front lines could be served. These were like model train sets with light, narrow gauge sections of railway line that could be easily laid on the ground and relocated when they were needed elsewhere. The quayside at Boulogne, one of the principal ports for cross-channel traffic supporting British forces. Maintaining these huge forces in the field - up to 2 million men were serving on the Western Front - required vast amounts of supplies. Huge investments were made to improve the logistical support for operations, and by 1918 these had reached levels of sophistication that were ultimately capable of supporting the offensives that brought the war to a close. The railways met the first test, of moving nearly 120,000 men and equipment in 670 special trains to the main embarkation port of Southampton by the end of August. The problems really began about 7 miles behind the front. The military used horses mainly for logistical support; they were better than mechanized vehicles at traveling through deep mud and over rough terrain. Dan Snow is speed dressed with a 1914 British Infantryman’s kit as used at the Western Front. Impact on the War The submarines used in WW1 did not only affect the soldiers fighting (while stile sinking vessels with soldiers and supplies on them), submarines also had impacts on civilians too.During the war the German U-boats sunk about 5,000 ships. A light railway lies in ruins on the right. These were only a temporary stopgap - although some vehicles such as London buses remained in service throughout the war - and thousands more vehicles were ordered from manufacturers in Britain and increasingly the USA. Both sides also developed new protective equipment in response to changes in military tactics and technologies. The motor vehicle manufacturing industry increased production but it was a slow process because the industry was generally small and fragmented. The Gallipoli campaign could only be sustained by shipping supplies through the Mediterranean and using lighters and small vessels to take them ashore. Fighting afflicted Africa throughout most of the war. This distance was too long to be bridged effectively with horse-drawn vehicles, because horses could not manage a daily round trip of this length. The United States did not participate in the war until April 6, 1917, almost three years after it broke out. One of these arose when the supply of steam coal from the Welsh mines for the Grand Fleet based at Scapa Flow was threatened by submarine attacks on coastal shipping. Railways provided the enormous logistical capacity needed to support huge armies in the field for years on end, including transportation of millions of artillery shells. Supplying raw materials, arms and other supplies. Click & Collect. Despite the best efforts, it took time to build new lines of communication. Initial Turkish attempts in 1915 to invade Egypt from Palestine and cut the canal were repulsed. Original German Cavalry Uhlan Schulterreimen Y-straps, 1916 or 1918 - Near Mint! Soldiers in the Western Front were very critical of the quantity and the quality of food they received. Nowhere was the planning more developed than in Germany and France. WW1 Weapons: Zeppelin Every bullet, blanket, bandage, artillery battery or tin of bully beef had to be manufactured and transported where and when it was required. The Germans pioneered the large-scale use of chemical weapons with a … In early 1943, the 79th Armoured Division under the command of Major-General Sir Percy Hobart was given responsibility for developing equipment and tactics to perform specialised tasks in support of ground troops on and after D-Day. Germany's 'Schlieffen Plan' provided for concentrating forces by rail rapidly along both the eastern and western boundaries. Food supplies in the trenches were adequate until late 1915, after which shortages and interruptions to shipments created problems. However, it was very evident that new equipment would be needed urgently and a simple, rugged freight locomotive previously designed for the Great Central Railway was selected in 1917 and 521 engines were built. Fresh meat was in short supply so most soldiers relied on ‘bully beef’ (canned corned beef). The Germans used torpedoes to blow up ships carrying supplies from America to Britain. In 1918 just over 75,000 were allocated to the cavalry, while nearly 450,000 horses and mules were used to lug supplies around. Mustard gas was the most deadly weapon used. What were air raids like during World War One? Motor vehicles had yet to seriously threaten the railways, except for local traffic, while aviation was at an embryonic stage. 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